American Osteopathic Association

Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine

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JAOA Review Finds Misdiagnosis of Common Foot and Ankle Injuries May Result in Arthritis, Chronic Pain and Disability

A clinical review in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association (JAOA) highlights the importance of additional imaging and second opinions for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common foot and ankle injuries. The study finds misdiagnosis often results in poor long-term patient care, including arthritis and disability.

Read an article about the study for more information. Learn more about DOs and the osteopathic approach to medicine by visiting




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 About Osteopathic Physicians


​DOs are licensed physicians who can prescribe medication and practice in all specialty areas, including surgery, in the United States. They complete approximately four years of medical school followed by graduate medical education through internship and residency programs typically lasting three to eight years. In addition, DOs receive extra training in the musculoskeletal system, providing them with an in-depth knowledge of the ways that illness or injury in one part of the body can affect another. As one of the fastest-growing segments of health care professionals in the nation, the number of DOs has grown more than 200% during the past 25 years.